Recenzii despre serul anti-îmbătrânire miracle rev. Masca faciala vilenta recenzii anti-imbatranire
Romanian Political Science Review vol. VIII, no.
Studia Politica. Romanian Political Science Review was established in the realization that the problems and concerns of both new and old democracies are beginning to converge.
The journal fosters the work of the first generations of Romanian political scientists permeated by a sense of critical engagement with European and American intellectual and political traditions that inspired and explained the modern notions of democracy, pluralism, political liberty, individual freedom, recenzii despre serul anti-îmbătrânire miracle rev civil rights.
Believing that ideas do matter, the Editors share a common commitment as intellectuals and scholars to try to shed light on the major political problems facing Romania, recenzii despre serul anti-îmbătrânire miracle rev country that has recently undergone unprecedented political and social changes.
They think of Studia Politica. They hope to be joined in by those scholars in other countries who feel that the demise of communism calls for a new political science able to reassess the very foundations of democratic ideals and procedures. Un posibil model de teorie şi acţiune politică. Acteurs et stratégies de production.
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I describe a number of recent studies1 that — acknowledging the increasing role of scientific expertise for political decisions, discuss the potential legitimacy problem that arises from that relationship. To answer the defined legitimacy problem, these accounts suggest that more inclusive, public participatory democratic procedures should be put in place in the collection and use of expertise, so that the trend towards the scientifization of politics can be counterbalanced by one of democratizing expertise itself.
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The public participatory accounts have not, of course, debuted with the dilemmas of scientific advice in political decision-making. But this literature, which claims to expose the normative inadequacy of the more classical accounts of political representation, has found a renewed support from a number of observers of the science and politics relationship, [i.
The problematic normative role of scientific expertise in policy-making is offering a new ground for accounts that aim to replace political representation by a combination of analytic, deliberative and inclusive participatory procedures. My aim in this article is to question the main framing of the problem of legitimacy of scientific expertise in political policy-making, as it is present in the radical participatory accounts discussed below.
Masca faciala vilenta recenzii anti-imbatranire
Then, I raise a more general objection against some of the current normative arguments for public participation, which rely on a procedural requirement in order to solve deep substantial, structural problems. The aim, throughout this study, is to revitalize theoretical interest in the rich normative potential and the analytical adequacy of the concept of political representation. How to Bring the Sciences into Democracy, transl.
Driven sometimes by the concern to re-conceptualize and integrate the problematic of risk in current theories, concepts such as regulation and governance2 tend to replace more traditional notions used to understand and theorize political institutions, relations and structures.
The role of scientific expertise in government, which in fact never leaved the concerns of political philosophers, is now increasingly invoked in the discourses dealing with the choices and political responsibility concerning inter-generational justice, technological progress, distribution of risks and the purpose of innovation. It has become a widespread view, these last years, that the classical categories of political theory no longer reflect the rapidly changing nature of political and non-political entities and relations that affect our lives in a global context, and that traditional institutions are powerless in the face of novel challenges.
Fast communication, global reach of economic actors and the global scope of environmental, technological, and health risks create the need for a new normative setting in which, among other conceptual innovations, recenzii despre serul anti-îmbătrânire miracle rev replaces government.
This view is also considered to apply to the changing relations between scientific expertise and contemporary democratic institutions. The terms of these relations are no longer, according to most observers, governed by the post-war understanding of the relation between science and government. ZINN eds. In risk regulation settings, this perspective corresponds to a sharp division between the scientific and the political elements of decision-making.
The regulatory process, according to this traditional view, is made up of several distinct phases, the main two being risk assessment and risk management. Risk assessment is supposed to be entirely scientific, objective, truth-tracking, while risk management, on the contrary, integrates that scientific assessment in the political decision-making, i. In recent decades, however, this view of the relationship of scientific expertise and politics is no longer accepted by an increasing number of scholars.
They often point out that, far from being autonomous and objective, the scientific expertise that defines the risk assessments, and the regulatory processes in general, is neither. Important works in the field of sociology of knowledge or Science and Technology Studies such as those of Helga Nowotny and Michael Gibbons2, have drawn the attention to the difference between two distinct modes of production of knowledge.
The science-for-policy, or regulatory science, is produced under a different mode than basic research. This problem is, furthermore, considered by them to be illustrative of the clear limits of traditional representative views of democracy.
Hotărârea nr. /
Traditional representative democratic institutions have not been able to deal with the new normative environment. I will turn now to these two strands of argument. Such decisional contexts, even more than others, suggest that beyond the need to secure a solid normative ground for the choices been made, there is an equally important imperative to get those choices right, in the sense of being supported by some epistemic certification.
But satisfying these two criteria is a complex task, and modern democratic representative institutions have been increasingly criticized for preferring one of them at the expense of the other, or even for fulfilling neither in trying to correspond to both.
The epistemic and legitimating virtues3 of public participation are an important new dimension of the participatory democratic theories as they explore the risk regulatory issues, and the science-politics relationship in general.
These arguments, 1 Ibidem, p. Widespread public participation in the production of expertise and the management of risks becomes, thus, a condition for the epistemic quality of decision-making. Besides epitomizing the democratic legitimacy criterion, the participatory procedures offer also a more solid scientific ground for complex decisions in contemporary societies.
Correspondingly, representative institutions are found to be, according to these arguments, failing on both normative and epistemic criteria. Several political theorists have used these findings in order to advocate for more participatory recenzii despre serul anti-îmbătrânire miracle rev less representative democratic arrangements in designing environmental policies. From social global justice to environmental protection, esthetic considerations, sustainable growth, technological innovation, animal rights, and the wellbeing of future generations intergenerational justicethese are some of the priorities of green political theorizing that only underscore the difficulty of the task.
Yet, in recent years, a certain preference for public participatory procedures seems to emerge as the best answer to the ecological challenge in political theory. Rather than summing up their arguments here, I rather point to the common strand that I have identified as originating in a modified descriptive understanding of the nature of expertise and its relation to political decision-making, and evolving into a recenzii despre serul anti-îmbătrânire miracle rev blown normative argument that is increasingly shared by both science, technology and society observers, and by political theorists of green credentials.
I turn now to a brief exposition of several current arguments against representative democratic institutions. Traditional representative democratic institutions are said to be unable to regulate global risks.
Social justice concerns were thus a central justification for political representation.
But these same institutions have a difficult time in transforming from resources-redistributors, in risk-redistributors, adapting to what Beck describes as the main feature and challenge for political decisions in the risk society. Not only can representative institution not control the risks that are beyond their jurisdictions; they are also increasingly dependent on a scientific expertise that is fundamentally contested.
Of course, the worry that political representatives cease to be concerned with the common good or the public interest, and become partial to, or dependent on, private interest, is a classical problem of political philosophy. In green political theory, the skepticism regarding political representation and the demands for public participation in collective decisions is a central tenet of a large and growing literature.
Traditional political representatives are portrayed as too weak in confronting the economic actors, organized scientific expertise, or insufficiently balancing the needs, the desires, the considered interests of their constituencies, of humanity, of nature, of future generations etc.
It is worth mentioning that, concerning the problematic of risk regulation, skepticism of the potential of representative institutions to satisfy standards of legitimacy has also been voiced from a conservative, minimal-state recent trend that demands de-regulation, and which contends that recent regulatory failures have clearly shown the incapacity of governments to control an increasingly unaccountable bureaucratic and scientific apparatus.
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Given the superior rationality of the market, and its fairer allocation of risks and benefits, the state should be less involved in substantial decisions, controlling and distributing burdens and benefits or managing risks. Political representation should, therefore, be sidelined not, as in the accounts studies above, in favor of greater public participation, but, on the contrary, in favor of the market mechanisms and minimal regulatory agencies. I am however concerned about the increasingly hegemonic and exclusionary role that the normative discourse about public participation tends to have in these recent debates in political theory, in as far as it recenzii despre serul anti-îmbătrânire miracle rev to equate public participation to legitimacy and as the opposite of political representation.
Again, I am fully aware that various formal and informal settings for participation are a very important part of dealing with the complex legitimacy issues that contemporary polities are concerned with; but reducing that normative complexity to a procedural view of public participation is neither helpful nor well-founded.
Moreover, I do not question the more complex studies of the science-politics relationship. The first refers to the way in which the considerations on science, expertise and politics have been instrumentalized by participatory democrats for expanding their critique of liberal representative democracy. Whether or not Science and Technology Studies have a built-in bias against liberal values, as some authors contend1, there is no easy transition from a descriptive analysis of the role expertise plays in policy-making to a unique normative framing of the legitimacy issues that arise.
Second, I contend that framing the problem of legitimacy of expertise in terms of the desirability of democratizing expertise through public participation is problematic, on several levels. Third, I argue that, trying to replace representation by participation signals an important conceptual confusion and a misunderstanding of the conditions of democracy itself.
As it will be argued in the last section of this article, political philosophy has long been concerned with the various crucial normative conflicts that constitute the background of political decisions.
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Well before being somehow brushed over and dissolved into public participation, fundamental conflicts and dilemmas such as deliberation vs. Nothing in the revamped conception on science and politics mandates the hope that these classical conundrums are now easier to solve by appealing to the consensus-building procedural capacities of participatory democracy.
In fact, none of the classical problems of political representation — which make its concept both rich and complex at the same time — seem to find an adequate answer in the current participatory accounts. I contend, furthermore, that not only is the problem of legitimacy in these accounts mostly wrongly framed; but also that the normative discourse on participation is based on fundamentally problematic conceptual, practical, and — in the end, — normative assumptions.
Hotărârea nr. 223/2019
On a practical level, certain time- motivational- and resources-based constraints on the realization of participatory democracy are smoothed in too easy terms. Moreover, there is a strong argument that, in fact, public participation necessarily collapses into some form of representation, rendering the participatory accounts conceptually unintelligible1.
As David Plotke argues, representation is democracy. Any participatory setting has to select and delegate agenda setters, organizers, decide on behalf of absents etc.
The opposite of representation is exclusion. And the opposite of participation is abstention. Rather than opposing participation to representation, we should try to improve representative practices and forms to make them more open, effective, and fair. Representation is not an unfortunate compromise between an ideal of direct democracy and messy modern realities. Representation is crucial in constituting democratic practices.
Deploring the environmental protection record track of traditional sauna criogenare democratic institutions, such writings argue that public participation should prove more environmentally-friendly than the various forms of political representation. As political theorists as diverse as Robert Goodin and Roger Scruton3 have observed, however, there is no conceptual connection, no plausible explanation of why participating individuals may decide to sacrifice whatever preferences they may have for the sake of nature, species preservation, landscape beauty, or future generations.
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Yet the empirical evidence is inconclusive, while the more conceptual objections raised above seem to lead to the rather opposite conclusions. There is, moreover, an important rhetorical dimension involved in the appeals to public participation — as if everyone knows or should know that it necessarily increases legitimacy, that it produces correct decisions and that it works in practice.
I argue in the next section that, despite this apparent common sense view, the connection between representation, participation and accountability is more complex, and that in an important sense, which might seem paradoxical, greater accountability depends on taking more seriously political representation, rather than focusing exclusively on participation.
Moreover, the internal tensions and the conflicts between its aspects are not limits, but constitute the concept itself, and as such representation makes possible the very political relations that we try to refine and reform. The dilemmas of political representation, from delegate vs. Any kind of political transformation will, as a result, take place as an internal displacement of the elements entering the representation process […] [R]epresentation is not a second best, as Rousseau would have had it, resulting from the increasing chasm between the universal communitarian space and the particularism of the actually existing 1 Hanna F.
Representation is constructive, producing knowledge, the capacity to share insights, and the ability to reach difficult agreements. It entails a capacity for recognizing social relations in order to consider changing them.